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Exchange Service 

How to Operate 
the No. 19 Teletypewriter 





No. 19 Teletypewriter 


Copyright 1949, by 
American Telephone and Telegraph Company 

PriDted in U.S.A. 


Teletypewriter Service 1 

How Teletypewriter Exchange Service Operates .... 2 

Special Features of Teletypewriter Exchange Service ... 5 

The No. 19 Page Type Sending and Receiving Teletypewriter 7 

The Teletypewriter Keyboard 11 

How to Operate the Teletypewriter 13 

Receiving a Message 13 

Sending a Message 14 

Special Practices 15 

Examples of Teletyped Messages 18 

How to Get the Best Teletypewriter Exchange Service . . 20 

Use of the Perforator and Transmitter 23 

Learning to Read the Perforated Codes in the Tape ... 28 

Good Teletypewriter Maintenance 30 

Placing Paper in the Teletypewriter 30 

Friction Feed 30 

Sprocket Feed 31 

Placing Perforator Tape in the No. 19 Teletypewriter . . 33 

Changing the Ribbon 35 

Reporting Service Difficulties 37 


Figure 1 How Teletypewriter Exchange Service 

Operates 2 

Figure 2 A Teletypewriter Central Office ... 3 
Figure 3 No. 19 Page Automatic Sending and 

Receiving Teletypewriter 6 

Figure 4 Send-Receive and Break Levers ... 8 

Figure 5 Perforator Control Lever 8 

Figure 6 The Teletypewriter Keyboard . . . . 11 
Figure 7 Placing the Perforated Tape in the 

Transmitter 26 

Figure 8 Transmitting the Perforated Tape . . 27 

Figures 9A & 9B Code Card 28 

Figure 10 Placing Paper in the Teletypewriter 

Friction Feed 30 

Figures 11 & 12 Placing Paper in the Teletypewriter 

Sprocket Feed 31,32 

Figures 13-15 Placing Perforator Tape in the No. 19 

Teletypewriter 33,34 

Figure 16 Changing the Ribbon 35 



Teletypewriter service is a typewritten communication service 
furnished by means of electrically energized teletypewriter ma- 
chines and a connecting circuit so arranged dial operation of one 
machine instantly and accurately reproduces a typed message on 
any other teletypewriter to which it is connected. In appearance 
and operation a teletypewriter is similar to an ordinary typewriter. 

The Telephone Company offers two kinds of teletypewriter 
service, Teletypewriter Exchange Service and Private Line Tele- 
typewriter Service. 

Teletypewriter Exchange Service 

Teletypewriter Exchange Service generally referred to as 
"TWX" service is furnished on substantially the same basis as 
telephone service, the principal difference being that the com- 
munication is typewritten instead of oral. 

TWX stations are connected to teletypewriter central offices 
or exchanges. Any TWX station may be connected through these 
central offices with any other TWX station in the United States. 
TWX connections are two-way; each station may send or receive 
messages on the same connection. 

Private Line Teletypewriter Service 

Private Line Teletypewriter Service provides a direct and 
continuous connection between two or more teletypewriters at 
specific points under a monthly contract arrangement. It does 
not connect with a TWX central office. 

While a Telephone Company representative is always available 
to give directions in detailed operating methods, this booklet sets 
forth the most important features of Teletypewriter Exchange 
Service and offers suggestions on how to make the most effective 
use of the service. 


How TWX Connect 

A Teletypewriter Central Office 

Figure 2 



Unattended Service 

Normally, communication is established between two stations 
at each of which is a teletypewriter attendant. However, a cus- 
tomer who wishes calls completed to his station when it is un- 
attended may arrange for "Unattended Service," whereby the 
central office teletypewriter operator, by means of a remote con- 
trol arrangement, may permit the receipt of communications at 
that station without the assistance of its attendant. Stations 
equipped for unattended service are specially designated in the 
Teletypewriter Directory by the symbol §. 

Conference Service 

Conference service is available to all teletypewriter exchange 
stations, permitting several teletypewriter stations to be intercon- 
nected for communication with one another. This service enables 
one TWX station to send a message to several other TWX stations, 
in the same or in distant cities, simultaneously. 

If conference service is regularly used to the same points, a list 
of conferees may be filed with the TWX central office and the call 
will then be assigned a code number. When a conference connec- 
tion is desired between these points it will save time to ask for 
such a conference by code number. 

Sequence Calling Service 

Sequence calling service is available to all teletypewriter ex- 
change stations. When a number of teletypewriter connections are 
required, they may be ordered at one time and completed in se- 
quence, i.e., the operator will establish a succeeding call as soon 
as possible after the previous one is finished. 



The numbers below refer to the corresponding numbers on the 
illustration on the opposite page — Figure 3. 

1. Control Switch. When turned on, starts the machine and sig- 
nals the operator at the teletypewriter exchange. This may be 
either under left or right end of the table. 

Note: Control switch may be either 1 or 1A. (Under apron 
of table.) 

2. Keyboard. For a detailed description, see Page 11. 

3. Copy Holder. Holds the message to be teletyped. 

4. Message Line Guide. Helps attendant to follow the lines to 
be typed. 

5. Paper Release Lever. (Located inside cover as illustrated in 
Figure 11.) When pushed back, frees the paper for adjust- 
ment. When pulled forward, holds paper tight. 

6. Line Space Lever. (Under front cover.) When pulled in one 
direction provides for double line spacing. When pulled in 
the opposite direction provides for single line spacing. 

7. Page Copy of message being teletyped. 

8. Platen Crank. When operated, turns paper in machine either 
up or down without affecting paper in other machines on the 
circuit. It must not be operated or held while the machine is 
in motion. 

9. Send-fteceive Lever. This lever must be up in " SEND" posi- 
tion to send a message. Lever drops to "REC" position if an- 
other station interrupts. Lever must be restored to " SEND " 
position before sending is resumed. See Figure 4. 

10. Break Lever. When there is a reason for interrupting an in- 
coming communication, the break lever (small inner lever 
above outer lever) when pressed down on receiving station, 
will interrupt station that is sending, and locks keyboards on 
both sending and receiving machines. Attendant at receiving 

station will then raise send-receive lever to " SEND" 
and type reason for interrupting. See Figure 4. 

. Perforator Lever. When lever is up in "KEYBOARD" posi- 
tion, message is typed directly on page copy. When lever is 
in "KBD & TAPE" position message is typed on page and 
codes are perforated on tape simultaneously. When lever is 
down in "TAPE" position, codes are perforated on tape only. 
See Figure 5. 

12. Character Counter Dial. Shows number of spacing char- 
acters typed on a line when machine is in "TAPE" operation. 
Sometimes located to left of machine. 

13. Visual End-of-Line Indicator. Lamp lights as a warning 
about 6 characters before the end of line when machine is 
operating in "TAPE" position. Sometimes located to left of 

Audible End-of-Line Indicator. A bell rings as a warning 
about 6 characters before end of line when operating in 
"KEYBOARD" or "KBD & TAPE" position. 

14. Line-Test Switch. (Under the door.) Normally pushed in. 
Pulled out only when preparing tape. Where switch is of the 
lever type, it is normally up, and is pushed down only when 
preparing tape. 

14A.t/ne-resf Switch. May be located here. 

15. Power Switch. "When turned on, provides power for operat- 
ing perforator and transmitter without signaling operator. 
Where a separate power switch is not provided, control switch 
1A is also used as power switch with line-test switch 14A in 
"TEST" position. 

16. Tape Reel Cover in which are tape reel and roll of unper- 
forated tape. 

17. Tape Guide to guide tape into perforator. 

18. Perforator which prepares messages in code on tape. 

19. Punch Block (under cover) on which perforations are 
punched on tape. 

20. Chad Box (under the table) to collect chad or particles of 
paper punched out of tape. 

21. Back Spacer to move tape back to correct errors in codes 
punched on tape. 

22. Perforated Tape passing from perforator to transmitter. 

23. Transmitter. Transmits automatically messages prepared on 

24. Transmitter-Distributor Switch. When switched to "ON" 
position, puts the transmitter in operation, moving the tape 
through the transmitter and sending the message over the cir- 
cuit at maximum speed. When switched to "OFF" position, 
stops the transmitter. 

25. Sensing Pins and Tape Feed Wheel for transmitting code 
perforations on tape and feeding tape through transmitter. 

n flat on sensing pins and tape 

27. Tope Stop Lever. Stops transmitter when tape becomes taut 
and is pulled up against it, thus preventing tearing of tape. 


The teletypewriter keyboard is similar to a typewriter keyboard 
but has only three rows of keys, instead of four. It types the let- 
ters of the alphabet in capitals only. By depressing the "FIGS" 
key, which takes the place of the "SHIFT" key on the standard 
typewriter keyboard, it types numerals, the principal punctuation 
marks, and commonly used special character! 

The attendant should use a light, even, rhythmic touch on the 
keys. Force is unnecessary because the teletypewriter is operated 
electrically. Pressing a second key before the first is released may 
result in one of the characters not being typed. 

To become a proficient teletypewriter attendant, proficiency in 
the touch system of typing is highly desirable. Under the touch 
system the "CAR RET" key and the "A" key are used as guide 
keys for the right hand and left hand respectively. The little finger 
of each hand is used on the guide key. 



Arrangement C 

Figure 6 

To shift the teletypewriter from the lower to the upper case for 
typing the numerals, punctuation marks, and special characters, 
press the "FIGS" key. 

To unshift the teletypewriter from the upper to the lower case, 
press the "LTRS" key or the space bar. The "LTRS" key un- 
shifts only; the space bar unshifts and space* 

To space between either words or characters, press the space 
bar. The teletypewriter will continue to space as long as the space 
bar is held down and will unshift from the upper to the lower 
case in one operation, as it spaces. When an upper case character 
follows the space operation, press the "FIGS" key. 

To return the carriage to the left margin, press the "CAR 
RET " key. Usually the machine is adjusted to type 72 characters 
to a line, which includes the spaces between typed words. A mar- 
gin bell rings or a lamp lights about 6 characters before the end 
of the line. 

To feed the paper up one line at a time, press the "LINE FEED " 

To begin a new line, press the " CAR RET , " "LINE FEED , " 
and "LTRS" keys, in this order. This returns the carriage to the 
beginning of the next line before a character is typed. 

To ring the bell for signaling the distant station, press the 
"FIGS" key and then the "BELL" key. 

To type the numeral "7," press the "FIGS" key and then the 
"1" key. This operation differs from that of a standard type- 
writer where the lower case "L" is used as numeral " 1 . " On the 
teletypewriter, lower case "L" types as a capital letter. 




1. When bell rings, make sure that line-test key is in "LINE" 
position unless a combined power switch and line-test key is 
provided; that send-receive-break key is in "SEND" position; 
that perforator-transmitter lever is in "KEYBOARD" position; 
and that transmitter-distributor switch is in "OFF" position. 
Then turn on control switch, thus starting the motor. 

2. Press the "CAR RET," "LINEFEED," and "LTRS" keys. 

3. Answer by typing your firm name, as, for example, "SMITH 

The Message 

The calling attendant should type her firm name and the full 
name or authorized directory abbreviation of the city, and then 
the message. 


After both stations have typed "END, " turn off the control 
switch, thereby giving a disconnect signal to the operator. 

To Interrupt a Sending Station 

1. The sending station should be interrupted when your copy be- 
comes scrambled, overlined, or piled up. Depress send-receive- 
break key to "BREAK" position. To do this, insert finger 
through slot and press down auxiliary lever. 

2. Raise send-receive-break key to "SEND" position. 

How to Operate the Teletypewriter 

In explaining the reason for breaking in, you may use one of 
the following phrases: 




If the trouble recurs, again interrupt. The station originating 
the call should recall the operator and request a better connection. 


Consult the Teletypewriter Directory 

Teletypewriter exchange stations are listed alphabetically in a 
nationwide Teletypewriter Directory under the name of die town 
or city in which the station is located. This directory also contains 
a classified section. The listing consists of the customer's name, 
business designation (if the name does not clearly denote the 
business), street address, and the call number as, for example, 
"NY 6-5101." 

If the symbol § appears in the directory preceding the cus- 
tomer's name, it means that his station is equipped for unattended 

Placing the Call 

1. On a No. 19 teletypewriter the message is ordinarily prepared 
on tape in advance of originating a call. For detail description 
of preparation of tape, see Page 24. 

2. Make sure that line-test key is in "LINE" position unless a 
combined power switch and line-test key is provided; that send- 
receive-break key is in "SEND" position; that perforator- 
transmitter lever is in "KEYBOARD" position; and that trans- 
mitter-distributor switch is in "OFF" position. Then turn on 
control switch to signal operator and start motor. 


How to Operate the Teletypewriter 

3. When operator answers, type the name or abbreviation of the 
called city and the number of the station desired exactly as 
shown in the teletypewriter directory. If desired station is not 
listed and you are sure the called party has teletypewriter 
exchange service, type the firm name and address, including 
the city and state. 

Note: When you place a call for a station equipped for receiv- 
ing messages during the attendant's absence, if unattended service 
will meet your requirements, type "-U" following the called 
number, as, for example, "CG 123-U. " However, if unattended 
service is desired only if the called station does not answer, type 
"-U IF DA, " following the called number. Unattended service 
may meet your requirements when you do not need an immediate 
response to your message and so can leave the message at the 
distant station. 

The Message 

1. When the called station answers by typing the firm name, type 
your firm name and city, as for example: "SMITH JONES 
CO NY." 

2. Proceed to type the message. 


1. After both stations have typed "END," turn off the contro 
switch, thereby sending a disconnect signal to the operator. 

2. On calls completed to unattended stations, turn off the control 
switch as soon as you have typed "END. " 


To Correct a Typing Error 

1. If you detect a typing error immediately after making it, cor- 
rect the error at once, typing "XXX" followed by a space, and 
then type the corrected words. 

How to Operate the Teletypewriter 

2. If you detect a typing error later, make the correction by 
typing at the end of the communication, the word "CORREC- 
TION" followed by, for example, "THIRD LINE FOURTH 
WORD SHOULD READ " typing the cor- 
rected words. 

Completing Delayed Calls 

When the operator notifies you of a delay in completing your 
call, acknowledge with "OK" and turn off the control switch. The 
operator will continue attempts to complete your call and will 
keep you informed. 

When the operator is able to complete your call, she will call 
you and report ready, as for example, "RDY WITH CG , " adding, 
if necessary, to the called station, "PLS ANNOUNCE CG. " 

When the called station answers, type your firm name and city 
and proceed with your communication. 

To Signal the Operator During a Call 

Turn off the control switch for about one-half a second and turn 
it on again. When the operator answers, type your request. 

To Signal the Distant Station During a Call 

If lower case characters are then desired, shift to lower case 
before proceeding to type unless the space bar is operated. 

Sending Station Interrupted 

If your keyboard locks when you are transmitting, understand 
that the other party has operated the break lever or button to inter- 
rupt. Wait for the attendant to type the reason for interrupting, as 
for example, scrambling, overlining, piling up, etc. Then restore 
the send-receive-break key to the "SEND" position, if your ma- 
chine is so equipped, and proceed accordingly with your com- 
munication from the point in the message indicated by the at- 
tendant who interrupted. 

If the called station experiences recurring trouble, signal the 
operator as provided above and request a better connection by 
typing, "BETTER CON." 

How to Operate the Teletypewriter 
To Place a Conference Call 

To place a conference call, type "CONF" followed by the call 
numbers of the desired stations, including the word "AND" before 
the last of these numbers, and hold the line. 

The operator will notify you when the conference is ready. 
Then type your firm name and city and start your communication. 

When you have finished your communication, type "END PLS 
ACK, " and call the roll of stations by typing the name of each 
called place with or without the number of each station. When all 
the acknowledgments have been received, type "DISCONNECT" 
and then disconnect by turning off the control switch. In case no 
acknowledgment is required from the called stations, terminate 
the conference by typing, "END DISCONNECT" and turn off the 
control switch. 

To Place Sequence Calls 

To place a number of calls to be completed in sequence, type 
"SEQUENCE" followed by the call numbers of the desired sta- 
tions including the word "AND" before the last of these numbers. 

The operator will notify you when each connection is ready, as 
for example, "RDY WITH CG. " When the called station answers, 
type your firm name and city, and proceed with your communica- 

Be sure to disconnect by turning off the control switch after each 

To Place a Collect Call 

To place a collect call, type "COLLECT" immediately preced- 
ing the called number, as for example, "COLLECT CG 2345. " 

The operator will announce the call as "COLLECT. " If the 
called party accepts the charge, announce your firm name and 
city, and proceed with your communication. 

How to Operate the Teletypewriter 

Filing the Call and Establishing 
the Connection 

A teletypewriter attendant in New York files a call for a tele- 
typewriter station in Chicago. The progress of the call is indicated 
on the copy at the sending station as follows: 

OPR New York central office operator answers the 


CG 234 Calling attendant types called number. 

OK New York central office operator acknowledges 

and reaches Chicago central office. 
CG Chicago operator answers. 

234 New York operator types called number. 

OK Chicago operator rings the called station and 

acknowledges the call. 
JONES & CO Attendant at called sta 

Example of Heading of Formal Message 

The first line shows the name and teletypewriter exchange num- 
ber of the calling station ; the date and time at which message is 
sent; and, where it is the practice to number the messages, the 
serial number of the message. 

The name and complete address of the called party then follows, 
where the formal address form is required. 

ALPHA CO NY 3-1234 FEB 19 1949 2-15 273 


Example of Heading of Informal Message 

An informal message is being sent to another branch of the 
same company and is in the nature of a memorandum. The calling 

How to Operate the Teletypewriter 



The Body of the Message 

This example of a message shows a reasonable use of punctua 
tion and indicates certain forms of abbreviation which are com- 
monly understood. To insure numerical accuracy, the numerals 
in the body of the message are repeated at the end of the message 
for verification. 

This example also shows how the service is used for two-way 

12,000 PER DAY AT $62.50 PER THOUSAND, 

17H3-12, 000-62. 50-42. 50-16-4-15 


Example of Tabulated Material 

It is suggested that tabulated material be set up with a minimum 
number of spaces between columns and that the first column start 
at the left margin to save circuit time. In each column enough 
spaces should be allowed to accommodate the number of char- 
acters in the longest item in the column, and a maximum of five 
spaces should be used between the columns. 

How to Operate the Teletypewriter 






























Answer Incoming Calls Promptly 
and Properly 

Answer promptly; otherwise, the calling attendant may be given 
a don't answer report and an important message may be delayed. 
Answer by typing your firm name so that the calling attendant 
can be sure that she has reached the right station. 

File Calls as Soon as Teletypewriter 
Operator Answers 

When the teletypewriter operator answers she is prepared to 
devote her entire attention to your call. Any delay on your part 
delays the operator and so slows your service. To file your call 
before the operator answers will also cause delay. 

To help you to file calls promptly, be sure to have all material 
required before signaling the operator and be ready to devote 
your entire attention to the call the instant she answers. 

Use Proper Directory Code or 
Abbreviation and Special Direction Codes 
in Filing Call 

The use of improper directory codes or abbreviations may re- 
sult in reaching the wrong station, delaying your n 
inconveniencing the party called in error. 

How to Operate the Teletypewriter 

Make sure that your directory and call lists are up-to-date, and 
then be careful to type the number exactly as shown. Avoid typing 
unnecessary details to the operator, such as, "PLEASE LET ME 

HAVE , " confining special instruction to codes provided, 

for example "- U IF DA . " 

Start Communications Promptly 

Courtesy to the called party demands that you start your mes- 
sage as soon as an answer is received from the called station. A 
slow start results in unproductive use of both calling and called 
machines and the circuits between them, and may increase the cost 
of the message. 

The following procedure will help you in starting your com- 

1. Have the message to be teletyped all ready in the copy holder 
before placing the call. Whenever possible, try to avoid send- 
ing from dictation. 

2. After filing the call, wait for the answer of the called station 
without interrupting while the call is being advanced. 

3. When the called station identifies itself, note the identifica- 
tion to make sure it is the station you called. 

4. Then immediately proceed with your communication. 
Type with Accuracy and Speed 

Errors in typing, especially where figures are involved, may 
have serious consequences. 

Whenever an error is noted, correct it promptly, thereby re- 
ducing retyping to a minimum. When you encounter recurring 
trouble on a connection, such as scrambling of type, recall the 
operator promptly if you originated the call. 

Whenever you type figures in your communication, a verifica- 
tion of the figures at the end of the communication will help to 
insure accuracy. 

Slow typing increases chargeable time and so increases the cost 
of the communication. The one sure way to develop speed in typing 
is to use all available spare time to practice. 

How to Operate the Teletypewriter 

In using abbreviations and codes to speed up the communica- 
tion, use only such abbreviations and codes as you are sure are 
familiar to the called attendant. 

Disconnect Promptly at End 
of Communication 

Prompt disconnection reduces chargeable time and makes call- 
ing and called stations available for other n 

If you are receiving the message, acknowledge the sender's 
"END" by typing "END, " and immediately disconnect. 

If you are sending the message, type "END" when finished, 
await typing of "END" by receiving station, if attended, and im- 
mediately disconnect. 


To Prepare Messages in Tape and Produce 
a Copy on Tour Teletypewriter Simultan- 

1. Make sure that send-receive-break key is in " SEND" posi- 
tion and that transmitter-distributor switch is in "OFF" 

2. Operate perforator-transmitter lever to "KBD & TAPE" 
position, line-test key to "TEST" position unless a com- 
bined power switch and line-test key is provided, and then 
turn on power switch. 

3. Operate "CAR RET," "LINE FEED," and "LTRS" 
keys, and then type the message. 

4. A bell rings after about 65 characters have been typed. 
When it rings, finish the word you are typing if to do so 
will involve typing not more than six characters; otherwise 
finish only the syllable of the word and then start a new 
line by operating the "CAR RET, " "LINE FEED, " and 
"LTRS" keys. 

To Prepare Messages in Tape Only, 'With- 
out Producing a Copy on Your Teletype- 

1. Make sure that transmitter-distributor switch is in "OFF" 

2. Operate perforator-transmitter lever to "TAPE" position, 
line-test key to "TEST" position unless a combined power 
switch and line-test key is provided, and then turn on power 

3. Operate "CAR RET," "LINE FEED," and "LTRS" 
keys, and then type your message. 

4. The character counter dial registers each spacing char- 
acter and shows the number of characters which have been 
typed on the line. The "FIGS, " "LTRS, " and "LINE 
FEED " operations do not register. Watch the dial to make 
certain you do not type too many characters for the length 
of the line. The end-of-line lamp lights after about 65 
characters have been typed. At the end of each line operate 
the "CAR RET, " "LINE FEED, " and "LTRS" keys in 
this order. When the " CAR RET " key is operated, the char- 
acter counter returns to zero and the end-of-line lamp 

To Receive an Incoming Message While 
Preparing Messages in Tape 

1. Make sure that send-receive-break key is in "SEND" posi- 
tion, and that transmitter-distributor switch is in "OFF" 

2. Operate perforator-transmitter lever to "KEYBOARD" 
position, line-test key to "LINE" position unless a com- 
bined power switch and line-test key is provided. If a table 
power switch is provided, turn it off and turn on control 
switch. Then answer in the usual way. 

3. When message starts coming in, operate the perforator 
control lever to "TAPE" position, and resume prepara- 

To Correct Errors on Tape 

1. Understand that to correct errors on tape it is necessary to 
delete not only the errors, but all the characters which 

2. Move tape back by pressing the back spacer once for each 
character to be deleted, until the first wrong character to 
be corrected is under the chad chute and the last correct 
character is visible at the left edge of the chad chute. 

3. Press "LTRS" key as many times as you have pressed the 
back spacer to change the characters to "LTRS" char- 

4. Retype that portion of the message which has been deleted. 
However, the characters are still registered on the char- 
acter counter dial. Therefore, when the dial indicates that 
you have reached the end of the line you may type that 
many additional characters. 

Care of Tape 

1. To remove the tape from the perforator, operate the 

"LTRS" key until several "LTRS" characters appear 
outside the perforator cover. Then tear the tape against 
the tape tearing edge. Drop that end of the tape through 
the hole in the table. 

If you do not wish to tear the tape, operate the "LTRS" 
key until sufficient "LTRS" characters are provided to 
allow the message to clear through the transmitter when 
the tape is transmitted. 

2. Where considerable tape is prepared in advance of send- 
ing, it will be found helpful to wind it on the thumb and 
little finger in the form of a figure 8, and place it in a con- 
tainer. This will prevent damage to the tape and allow it 
to feed smoothly through the transmitter. 

To Place the Perforated Tape 
in the Transmitter 

1. Perforate enough tape to reach from the punch block to the 
transmitter (about 12 words). 

2. Make certain that the transmitter switch is in "OFF" position. 

3. Feed the tape, surface facing upward, under the tape stop lever 
to the transmitter. The upper surface of the tape may be de- 
termined by noting with the finger the slight roughness caused 
by the perforating. 

4. Raise the tape gate and place the tape feed perforations on 
the teeth of the tape feed wheel with the first code to be trans- 
mitted directly over the sensing pins as in Figure 7. The tape 
feed perforations are the smaller holes in the tape. Two code 
perforations appear above and three below the tape feed per- 
forations. When the tape is placed in the transmitter, the two 
code perforations should be toward the back of the transmitter. 


5. Hold the tape down flat and close the tape gate. 

6. Be sure to have a receptacle on the floor in which the tape may 
collect in order to avoid damaging tape before transmission. 

To Transmit the Perforated Tape 

1. Make certain that line-test switch is in "LINE" position, oper- 
ate the perforator control lever to "TAPE" position and raise 
the send-receive lever to " SEND " position. 

2. Operate the transmitter switch to "ON" position. Observe the 
tape occasionally to be certain it does not become twisted or 

3. If the tape becomes twisted, straighten it, stopping the trans- 
mitter, if necessary, by operating transmitter switch to " OFF . " 

4. If the tape is damaged, stop the transmitter by operating trans- 
mitter switch to "OFF, " move the tape over in the transmitter 
to the next good portion, and reset it. Operate perforator con- 
trol lever to "KEYBOARD" position, and send the damaged 
part of the message by keyboard. Then restore the perforator 
control lever to "TAPE" position and operate transmitter 
switch to "ON" position again. 

5. If the tape is feeding from the perforator to the transmitter and 
becomes taut, it will raise the tape stop lever and stop the tran»- 
mitter. See Figure 8. As more tape is perforated, the lever will 
be released and the transmitter will operate automatically. 

6. To stop the transmitter when all messages 
sent, operate transmitter switch to "OFF, 

a the tape have been 


The codes are shown on the Code Card pictured below. Youl 
Telephone Company representative will be glad to furnish you 
with such a code card. 








The upper side of the tape usually has a slight roughnes$ made 
by the perforations. Read the codes with that side uppermost. 

There are five code positions which are numbered on the abovl 
figure consecutively from No. 1 at the top of the tape to No. 5 at 
the bottom. 

The small perforations between lines 2 and 3 are not part of 
the codes but are the tape feed perforations. 

The "LTRS" code has perforations in all five positions. Other 
codes have perforations in different combinations of positions. 
For instance, "A" is the 1-2 code, "B" is 1-4-5. The blank is not 
a code but is only a tape feed perforation. 

Read the codes in the lower case until a "FIGS" code appears. 

Following a "FIGS" code, read the codes in upper case until 
a "LTRS" code or a space appears, after which read the codes in 
the lower case again. Learn to read the lower and upper case char- 
acters for each code. 

In learning to read the codes, memorize several codes at a time. 
Then practice reading from a perforated tape the codes so memo- 




Friction Feed 

Figure h 

Check the supply of paper in the teletypewriter frequently to 
avoid having it run out in the middle of a message thereby causing 
a service interruption. The approach to the end of the roll usually 
is indicated by a colored streak along the edge of the paper. Place 
a new roll of paper in the teletypewriter as soon as feasible after 
this streak appears. 

To plac 

i the new roll of paper in the teletypewriter, proceed a 

1 . Turn off the control switch and open the front and rear cover* 
of the teletypewriter. Turn the platen crank to roll back the 
paper from under the platen. 

2. Push back retaining plates and removi 
spindle grooves. 
Remove the spindle from the used roll. 

the roll from the 

Good Teletypewriter Maintenance 

3. Insert the spindle in the new roll with the spindle spring on 
right side and with the paper feeding from underneath the 
roll toward you. 

4. Place the spindle in the right groove with the spindle spring 
on that side, and then in the left groove. Push the retaining 
plates forward. 

5. Feed the paper over the straightening rod and directly under 
the platen, bringing it up between the platen and the paper 
fingers by turning the platen crank. 

6. Push back the paper release lever, straighten the paper as 
you would in an ordinary typewriter, and pull the paper re- 
lease lever forward. 

7. Close the rear cover and roll the paper up over it, using the 
platen crank. Close the front cover. 

Sprocket Feed 








Good Teletypewriter Maintenance 




Figure 12 

Check the amount of paper in the container frequently to avoid 
having it run out in the middle of a message. 

To place the new supply of paper in the teletypewriter, proceed 
as follows: 

?rs of teletype- 

2. Raise pressure rollers. 

3. Feed paper under guide strip, between guide posts, into 
paper slot in rear of cover, over rear plate, under retard rod, 
over loading plate, and insert the leading edge of paper 
under platen. 

4. Align paper by placing perforations in paper on sprocket 
pins and lower pressure rollers. This operation must be con- 
tinuous, otherwise paper may slide back into paper box. 

Good Teletypewriter Maintenance 


Check the supply of tape in the teletypewriter frequently to 
avoid having it run out in the middle of a message. The approach 
of the end of the roll usually is indicated by a colored streak near 
the end of the roll of tape. Place a new roll of tape in the teletype- 
writer as soon as feasible after this streak appears. 

To place the new 
proceed as follows: 

all of perforator tape in the teletypewriter, 

1. Operate the perforator control lever to the " TAPE" position. 

2. Raise perforator cover, tear the old tape against the right 
edge of chad chute, and remove it from tape guide. Feed out 
the piece of tape in punch block by operating "LTRS" key. 
See Figure 13. 

Good Teletypewriter Maintenance 

3. Lift off tape reel cover, remove tape holder, and lift out old 
roll of tape. Then place new roll of tape on tape core of tape 
reel with tape feeding from underneath the roll. Feed tape 
out of tape reel container, over tape roller. See Figure 15. 

4. Replace tape holder and tape reel cover. 

5. Cut end of new tape to a point. Pull tape forward and turn 
it so that right edge is toward rear of teletypewriter. Feed it 
through tape guide, in back of tape pressure spring, through 
slot of punch block from right side and out on left side. See 
Figures 13 and 14. 

6. Raise tape tension lever, feed tape down between tape feed 
roller and tape tension lever, and release lever. See Figure 

7. Operate "LTRS" key, and at the same time gently pull tape 
until it is feeding properly. Then close perforator cover and 
continue to operate "LTRS" key until tape extends beyond 

Good Teletypewriter Maintenance 

Check the condition of the ribbon frequently and replace it 
when it becomes worn. Otherwise it may produce illegible copy 
or cause service interruptions. Change the ribbon outside of busy 
hours. Use a one-half inch ribbon with reversing rivets on a spool 
designed for teletypewriter use. 

Following are instructions for changing the ribbon: 

1. Turn off power. Open front cover. Lift both spools from 
spool shafts. 

2. Disengage old ribbon from ribbon carrier hooks, reverse 
arms and roller guides. 

3. Remove old ribbon from one spool, hook end of new ribbon 
to hub of empty spool, and wind ribbon about 6 inches on 
spool, until reversing rivet is on spool. 

4. Replace the spools on the shafts, making sure that the spools 
engage the spool shaft pins and that the ribbon feeds from 
the back of each spool. 

Good Teletypewriter Maintenance 

6. Place ribbon in slots of both reverse arms. Do not try t< 
change position of reverse arms. Take up the slack in thi 
ribbon by turning the free spool. 

7. Close front cover. 



Teletypewriter Maintenance 

It is the responsibility of the Telephone Company to mai 

the teletypewriter machine and the circuit. They inspect the 
machine and clean the type periodically. Where it is necessary 
for you to clean the type, use a short-handled dry typewriter brush. 

To Report a Teletypewriter Out of Order 

If the equipment is not operating satisfactorily or if you know 
that repairs are needed, ask the teletypewriter operator for 
"REPAIR SERVICE." However, if the trouble prevents com- 
munication with your operator, call by telephone and describe the 

Machine Will Not Start 

Make sure that the plug on the teletypewriter power cord is 
pushed all the way in the power outlet. 

Make sure that the power supply has not failed, as indicated by 
the failure of your lighting system. Report such trouble as you 
would failure of the power for lights in your office. 

Paper Feed Tronbles 

If the paper feeds to one side, does not feed, tears, or jams, 
check the following: 

Has the paper been placed in the machine as outlined under 

"Placing Paper in the Teletypewriter?" 
Is the paper release lever in the proper position? 
Has too much paper accumulated in back of the machine? 
Has the paper been torn correctly? 
Where superfold paper is used, is the container holding the 

paper correctly located? 

Ribbon Tronbles 

If the ribbon is feeding and the printing is faint, replace with a 
new ribbon. 

If the ribbon is not feeding, make sure that it has been placed 
in the machine as outlined under "Changing the Ribbon." 

If the edges of the ribbon are caught in some part of the ma- 
chine, the ribbon is either badly worn or is of the wrong type. 
Therefore, replace the ribbon. 

If trouble continues, call "REPAIR SERVICE. " 

To Insure Satisfactory Operation 

Be thoroughly familiar with the operation of your machine. 

Keep the teletypewriter equipped with sufficient paper or tape 
and a ribbon in good condition. 

Keep a sufficient supply of paper, tape, and ribbons on hand